Schizoid Personality Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

Schizoid Personality Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments

Introduced by Eugen Bleuler in 1908, the term “Schizoid” refers to people that prefer to keep themselves aloof from the rest of the world, live in their internal fantasy world, and hardly have social interactions. Schizoid has been classified as one of the types of personality disorders.

And, people with such type of disorder lack interest in their social interactions and in relationships as well. They mostly prefer going solo and engage in solitary activities. Having a limited expression of emotions, people with SPD feel suffocated in close relationships and hardly take pleasure in any activities.

Schizoid Personality Disorder Symptoms

As mentioned earlier, people with SPD (Schizoid Personality Disorder) prefer to keep themselves detached from social interactions and show less interest in relationships. And, due to this type of mental state, they become unable to relate to people with the passage of time.

They have a limited expression of emotions and feel comfortable with people and relationships having less emotional demand.

Schizoid Personality Disorder (SPD) may appear at any stage of life and exhibit the symptoms in a handful variety of contexts including the preference for solitude, poor peer relationships, academic underachievement, etc.

Schizoid Personality Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments. A lonely girl looking out of a high-rise flat.

Some of the most common SPD symptoms include:

  • Prefer solitary activities most of the time
  • Hardly take pleasure in any activities including sex
  • Lack interest in close relationships and social interactions
  • Appear to be detached and indifferent to praise as well as criticism
  • Have emotional coldness
  • Limited expression of emotions, etc.


Well, there may be a number of causes though the exact causes aren’t officially confirmed. However, SPD may cause due to both genetical history and environmental factors that took place during childhood, adolescent stage, early adulthood, etc.

From the genetical perspective, people suffering from SPD may have had a parent, father or mother, who was unresponsive to his or her needs, have had emotional coldness, etc. Again, people who grown up in an unwelcomed environment where they lack emotional bonding and hardly experienced love and care.


Like the rest of the personality disorders, treatment of SPD also takes time and is somewhat difficult with no quick solution to the problem. Again, it requires a variety of approaches when it comes to treating Schizoid Personality Disorder. However, individual psychotherapy, as well as group therapy, can be a helpful SPD treatment approach though people with such kind of mental disorder are less likely to go for treatment.

Schizoid Personality Disorder: Symptoms, Causes, Treatments. Doctor Treating Male Patient

People suffering from schizoid disorder tend to maintain distance, even from their family members. They hardly confess something is wrong with them and deny to seek for a treatment unless they are pressurized. In most of the cases, they usually terminate therapy. And, there’s hardly any specific drug to treat schizoid personality disorder though certain drugs can be fruitful to deal with depression and anxiety.

Individuals with schizoid symptoms usually defer disclosing their inner life before the therapist. However, a modified cognitive behavioral therapy can be a decent choice to change the behaviors and beliefs of the individual. Again, a skilled therapist with appropriate treatment approach observing the pattern of the disorder can significantly improve the condition.

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